The 4Cs – carat, color, clarity, cut

The four main characteristics that determine the value of a diamond, namely Carat, Color, Clarity and Cut.
The best combination of the 4Cs determines the greater value of the diamond and, consequently, the greater value.


The weight of diamonds, like that of other gems, is expressed in carats. One carat equals 0.2 grams; 5 carats are therefore needed to form a gram. The term carat derives from the Greek Keration and indicated the carob seed, whose weight is very homogeneous.

In the diamond industry the weight of gems is measured down to one thousandth of a carat and then rounded into hundreds, commercially called a “point”. The price of the diamond, which is expressed per carat, never increases mathematically in relation to its weight.

A diamond weighing two carats, therefore, will not cost twice as much as a one carat diamond of the same quality, but much more.




The Diamond is the only gem in which the absence of color determines its value.

Diamonds come in a variety of white tones. The evaluation of the color of a diamond, for classification purposes, is obtained by measuring the degree of approach to the total absence of color. The diamonds that come closest to the absence of color are very rare and are classified D, E, F and G.

The letter D refers to perfectly colorless stones, the rarest and most expensive.

In this scale the letters of the alphabet are used starting from the letter D (colorless) up to the letter Z, as the saturation increases.
The intensity of the color is determined by comparing the diamond to be analyzed with a range of reference stones, called “
In nature there are, in addition to yellow, pink, blue, orange, brown, gray and even red diamonds (considered among the rarest of all).




Each diamond has its own precise identity, due to the presence of small traces of carbon or small crystals of a different nature, which remained trapped during the crystallization process. They are called inclusions and are structural inhomogeneities that are considered “natural footprints”. Their number, color, size and position determine the degree of purity of the diamond .

Purity is evaluated according to a scale on which it is based to describe the level of “imperfections” or “inclusions”.

The purity levels include:
IF = no internal inclusion visible at 10x magnification by an expert eye.
VVS1= usually it is a single very small inclusion visible at 10x magnification only by an expert eye.
VVS2 = very small inclusions visible at 10x magnification only by an expert eye.
VS1 = very small inclusions visible 10x magnification.
VS2 = several very small inclusions visible at 10x magnification.
SI1 = small inclusions visible at 10x magnification.
SI2 = several small inclusions visible at 10x magnification.
SI3 = inclusions visible to the naked eye only by an expert observer.
I1 = inclusions visible to the naked eye.
I2 = many inclusions clearly visible to the naked eye.
I3 = many inclusions clearly visible to the naked eye which diminish the brilliance and compromise the structure of the diamond, making it more fragile.




Cutting is a process of fundamental importance for the visual rendering of a diamond. This is undoubtedly the most important of the 4Cs, as the higher the quality of the cut, the better the combination of brilliance and fire of the stone . The proportions of a stone are the most important parameter for evaluating the sparkle of a diamond.

The cut is evaluated through a quality scale which includes:

Excellent cut or Ideal cut:
Perfectly proportioned round diamonds (with percentage of depth and percentage of table, such as to create the best compromise between fire and brilliance). These diamonds almost always show the highest levels of brilliance and symmetry, highlighting the extreme care taken in their workmanship. The skill and expertise used to make this cut allow for a diamond of superior beauty. “Ideal cut” diamonds are usually much more expensive than differently cut ones. This is due to three main factors: 1) it takes more time and more skill to cut a diamond with such precision; 2) they are very popular stones; 3) it is necessary to sacrifice a good part of the original rough diamond to obtain the ideal proportions.

Very good cut:
Diamonds cut to proportions that exactly match the depth and plank percentage requirements. These extraordinary proportions maximize the diamond’s fire and brilliance.

Good Cut:
Diamonds cut to acceptable but not ideal proportions. These stones generally exhibit a good level of brilliance and fire.

cut : Diamonds cut according to proportions that differ from the ideal ones. They have been cut in such a way as to recover as much weight as possible from the rough stone at the expense of fire and brilliance. They are less expensive than diamonds cut to a very good or good cut and do not have the brilliance and sparkle you would expect from a high quality diamond.

Fair cut:
Diamonds cut to proportions that make them appear relatively lackluster. We do not recommend these higher quality jewelry stones.